Researchers of the University of Oulu published an article with the title "Evaluation of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the determination of nitric, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid concentrations in pickle liquor" in the Microchemical Journal 137 (2018) 342-347 in November this year.
Below is the abstract of the article and the full copy can be purchased from ScienceDirect.
The focus of this study was to assess the feasibility of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for stainless steel pickle liquor acid quantification. Pickle liquor is used for dissolving metal surface impurities during the pickling process. The pickle liquor samples consisted mainly of 11–89 g/L HNO3, 20–160 g/L H2SO4, 5–57 g/L HF and stainless steel residue. Raman peaks correlating with the different acids were identified in both aqueous and pickle liquor solutions. The linearity between Raman scattering intensity and acid concentration was studied. Multivariate PLSR calibration for pickle liquor HNO3, H2SO4 and HF quantification was also investigated. Time-gated Raman spectroscopy was found to be a promising technique for pickle liquor HNO3 and H2SO4 quantification.